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Posts Tagged ‘Angelman syndrome

epigenetics and imprinting 6: when things go wrong

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some visible signs of Angelman syndrome

So imprinting involves parent-of-origin effects of which we find evidence in certain segments of certain chromosomes, in which genes are switched on or off, depending on inheritance. It often seems that these parent-of-origin effects counter-balance each other, as both parents have their own mutually exclusive way of trying to ensure the continuation of their genetic line.

It’ll be tough (for me) to take this down to a molecular level, but I’ll rely heavily on Nessa Carey’s book. It describes work on chromosome 7 in mice. I should first mention that there’s a convention in naming genes using italics, and the proteins they code for without italics. So there’s a gene in chromosome 7 called insulin-like growth factor 2 (Igf2) which promotes embryonic growth, and is usually expressed from the paternal copy. When researchers introduced a mutation which prevented the gene from effectively coding for the Igf2 protein, the offspring of this mutation were unaffected when the mutated gene was inherited from the mother, but the litter of offspring were much smaller when the gene was mutated in the father, showing that it was the paternal copy of the Igf2 gene that was required for foetal growth.

Fascinatingly for this ‘battle of the sexes’, there’s a gene in mouse chromosome 17 – Igf2r – which acts against the Igf2 protein, stopping it from promoting growth. This gene is also imprinted, from the maternal side. And so it goes.

According to Wikipedia, we now know of at least 80 imprinted genes in humans, mostly related to embryonic and placental growth and development. This is almost twice the amount Carey reported on less than a decade ago, so discoveries in this area are moving fast. As Carey writes, it’s uncertain whether there’s less imprinting in humans than in other mammals (we know of about 150 imprinted genes in mice) or whether they’re just harder to detect. Imprinting evolved about 150 million years ago (how do they know that? – as the much-treasured Bill Bryson would say), and is particularly prevalent amongst placental mammals.

This post was supposed to be about the mechanisms involved in imprinting, but my vast readership will have to wait awhile. I’m going to follow Carey, because I’m learning a lot from her, into the next area she writes about – ‘when imprinting goes bad’. She describes two very different conditions from birth, Angelman syndrome (AS) and Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS). Researchers separately studying these conditions found that the parents of the sufferers were usually healthy, yet everything pointed to something genetic going on, presumably during the production of eggs or sperm.

The separate work on the origins of these two permanently debilitating but very different conditions eventually converged, when it was found that in both AS and PWS, the patients were missing a small, identical stretch of chromosome 15. What caused the two entirely different results of this defect was whether it was inherited from the mother (resulting in AS) or the father (resulting in PWS). So the disorder is epigenetically inherited, a further example of a parent-of-origin effect.

Yet some children inherit these disorders without any deletions to chromosome 15. They have two normal copies of chromosome 15 but not from each parent. Instead they have two copies from the mother and none from the father – called uniparental disomy. In another variation on the theme it was later discovered that AS was in some cases caused by the opposite form of uniparental disomy, in which two normal copies of the chromosome were inherited from the father. So, because the particular region of the chromosome is normally imprinted, it’s essential, for healthy offspring, that the region is inherited in the ‘correct’ way, from each parent.

I’ll be looking at more examples of problematic inheritance and imprinted genes next time.


Nessa Carey, The epigenetics revolution, 2011

Written by stewart henderson

January 23, 2020 at 12:49 pm